Don’t get the wrong idea! Part2: Breathing

respiratory

Above the red line is the diaphragm. The right side is slightly higher than the left side due to the location of the heart. I’m wondering how many people know that fact.
The following figure is a sketch, which shows you the diaphragm, viewed from the front.

2

A lot of people think that the diaphragm looks bowl shaped.
This is not true, actually it has legs.
We call the legs the crus of the diaphragm, which connects to the front of L3, (3rd Lumbar Vertebra) to support the diaphragm.
Therefore, the functions and movements of breathing are deeply relevant to the lower back and body.
I often hear that, “you should breathe with your abdomen more or put more air in your belly.” Even if you could breath with your abdomen properly, air never flows into your belly/stomach. Though the stomach does move during breathing, air does not flow to or through there.
Abdominal breathing uses the trunk muscles of the stomach/belly area, then depresses the diaphragm. These muscles support the movement of breathing.
Air only comes into the lungs as shown in the above figure.
I’ve met one vocal coach who did not teach abdominal breathing techniques properly.
He instructed ”Move only the belly”, “Don’t move the chest!” This way is not correct and is not the proper breathing reference or technique.
This is question:
Please classify which one is used for breathing in or out regarding the muscles related to breathing:
1:Internal intercostal
2:External intercostal
3:Diaphragm
4:Scalene muscle
5:Transverse thoracic muscle
6:Intercartilaginous muscle
7:Serratus posterior superior muscle
8:Serratus posterior inferior muscle
9:Subcostales muscle

You got it?
You do not need to know all the names of the muscles, though understanding the process of breathing will be easier to grasp if you know the placement and movement of theĀ  muscles involved.

Note1:I have overseen vocal coaches and music teachers, and have noticedĀ  many coaches are dedicated to teaching singing but some of them use an eccentric method instead of theory. I feel that the former is humble, making only an effort to acquire the skill of singing. The latter is inherited or learned by a good singer who teaches using experiences as well as supported educational materials.
Judging which method of teaching is the best cannot be decided, because a license is not required to sing a song and or teach singing. Professional teaching coaches who are strong advocators, will present their students with a course overview or syllabus. In which, will describe all the future goals and criteria that will be learned throughout the course..
I strongly recommend you to learn singing from a vocal coach who will focus on the mechanics of vocalization. This knowledge is often overlooked. Learning mechanics is a necessary fundamental if you wish to achieve growth.

Note2:This article was intended to inform those who wish to learn about vocal training and the mechanics involved. Know that it does come along with hard training. Be careful not to suffer a vocal impairment or strain your voice from intense training, or driven instructors.
Please take care!

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Don’t get the wrong idea! Part1: The movement of the cricothyroid articulation.

Don’t get the wrong idea about how to move the cricothyroid articulation…
We have already discussed and know that a high-pitched or loud voice is achieved by moving the cricothyroid articulation.
Many books I have seen imply that vocalization of the cricoid cartilage bows when vocalizing.
However, this is wrong. The cricoid cartilage is actually moved up. This occurs by the moving of the pendant moiety on the cricothyroid muscle.
The cricoid cartilage and the thyroid cartilage are suspended by [A]the stylopharyngeus muscle and[B] the stylohyoid muscle. (Please see the bottom figure)
Therefore, you would expect the thyroid cartilage to slightly move back, because the soft issue extends.
Please be aware when reading any book that states that, “the thyroid cartilage goes down when vocalizing high-pitched registers.” – Because that statement is incorrect.
The vocal chord is composed of twin infoldings of mucous membranes stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation. Sound is not made by metal or wood like a machine, or instrument.

1
Wrong movement

2
Right movement theoretically

3
Real movement

**I sketched the above figures without the glenoid cavity of cricoid cartilage because it is easier to see how to move the cricothyroid articulation**
Note: Validating proper palpation:
The thyroid cartilage and the cricoid cartilage are located in the front. Hold the edge of the thyroid cartilage by the left finger and put the right finger under the cricoid cartilage, then open maximally. Figure 1 : Opened minimally Figure 2: Shows the status of the joint position, movement, and the vocal cord of expansion as well as contraction.

4_1
Figure1

4_2
Figure2

The blue circle is the movement range of cricothyroid articulation.
The green arrow is the orbit of movement.
The red point is the laryngeal prominence (Known as the Adam’s Apple)